There’s a lot of discussion is some circles about the Sabbath, sometimes quite vehement. But what is the Sabbath really all about? Is it just about a certain day of the week, or might there something else as well? Something more? What does the Scripture say? Romans 4:3.
First, some introductory thoughts. This is a very controversial subject. In other venues, my comments on it have brought out a lot of venom. I’m sorry about that. My goal is never to offend someone or to be controversial simply for the sake of controversy. I learned a long time ago that it doesn’t matter what you believe the Bible says about a certain subject, someone will disagree with it. My goal is always to answer the question at the end of the first paragraph: what does the Scripture say?
Second. I accept only Scripture (that is, the 66 books commonly accepted as Scripture) as authoritative on all matters of faith and practice. The writings of human authors may be useful and helpful, but they have no authority in determining what is true or false. If you follow such a writing, then you probably won’t agree me. The same is true of confessions of faith and catechisms. Nevertheless, I hope you will hear me out and be like those of Berea, who searched the Scripture…to find out whether these things are so, Acts 16:11.
Third. Because this subject is so complex, and controversial, we’re going to have to divide it into several posts. We will look at the origin of the Sabbath and it’s incorporation into the Mosaic Covenant. This will cover the books of Moses. Then we’ll look at Israel’s compliance, or not, with her responsibilities concerning the Sabbath. This will cover the rest of the Old Testament. Finally, we’ll cover the New Testament, including Jesus and the Sabbath, as well as the Book of Acts and the other NT books. I hope you will read all the posts. I had originally hoped to limit it to just three posts, but that just didn’t seem possible. We’ll publish them daily, one after the other.
Fourth, I do welcome your comments. But, please, no venom.
Fifth, “routine” in the title simply means that there are some people who worship on a particular day, Saturday or Sunday, because that’s just how they always done it. They’ve never really given any thought to the subject, but have gone with the flow, so to speak.
Finally, it has been the habit of some to refer to Sunday as “the Christian Sabbath.” It seems to me that this just confuses the issue. The Sabbath was given to Israel as a commemoration of her deliverance from Egypt. Regardless of what application may be made about deliverance from sin, the Sabbath looks back to that event. On the other hand, Sunday commemorates the resurrection of our Lord. Without that, there would be no deliverance from sin.
Worship on Sunday has been characterized by some as the mark of the beast. Other scorn the idea of “New Covenant Christianity,” insisting that we must continue to keep the Old Covenant Law. In order fully to understand this topic, we need to look at what the Bible actually says about the Sabbath, or “the seventh day”.
Note: Even though we realize it’s largely fallen out of favor, we used the listings for “sabbath” and “sabbaths” found in Strong’s Concordance for the KJV.
Moses and the Sabbath.
- Creation and the Sabbath.
The very first mention of the “seventh day” is found in the Creation account in Genesis 2:1-3 (NKJV):
Thus the heavens and the earth, and all the host of them, were finished. And on the seventh day God ended His work which He had done, and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had done. Then God blessed the seventh day and sanctified it, because in it He had rested from all His Work which God had created and made.
We read in these verses that God “rested” on the seventh day. Meaning no disrespect, did He rest because He was tired? He just took a day off? Perhaps He needed to figure out what to do next – He had arrived at an impasse. Or perhaps He had run out of material with which to build and needed to resupply. These are all common things that happen in the plans and building of men. However, we are talking about God. The failings, limitations, and imperfections of men may never in any way or for any reason or at any time be attributed to Him. He is God.
It’s clear that God “rested” because He was finished with creation. Nothing remained to be done. It was complete. May we suggest that the Creation Sabbath speaks of an accomplished work – a finished work – a completed work – a successful work, if you will. “Rest” in this case means a ceasing of work because there is nothing more that needs to be done, not just a temporary relaxing from it. There were no “bugs” to be fixed, no kinks to be worked out. It needed no upgrades or “patches”. It was all very good. Adam and Eve thought they could improve on it, and look at the mess they made.
It’s interesting that there is no mention of the Sabbath, any Sabbath, for several hundred years after Creation. Though “tithing” is mentioned twice, the Sabbath is not seen again until Israel has left Egypt and is on her way to the Promised Land.
- “Complaining” and the Sabbath.
(There are about 17 occasions in Exodus where God, through Moses, talks about the Sabbath. Because I have been accused of “cherry-picking” references on this subject in other venues, we’re going to look at all of them. I’m sorry for the length of some of these posts, but it can’t be helped. The study of God’s Word shouldn’t have “word-count” restrictions, anyway.)
Exodus 16 gives us the next occurrence of the word “Sabbath”. There were probably a couple million men, women and children moving through a wilderness area. Since they were on the move, there were no farms or stores, and what they could find in passing was probably pretty sparse. As was their custom in almost everything, they soon began to complain, this time about being hungry.
God’s solution was to provide for them supernaturally, with what they called “manna” (literally, “what is it?”) in the morning and quails in the evening. There were some instructions given as to what was to be done about these provisions. In particular, the manna was to be gathered and eaten every day, with nothing stored up. Some of the Israelites were negligent about this, and discovered that the left-over manna bred worms and stank, Exodus 16:20. Though Moses was angry about this lapse, nothing happened to the offenders.
There was one exception to this daily gathering of manna. On the sixth day, they were to gather twice as much as on the other days, Exodus 16:22. On the seventh day, Moses said of this extra manna, “Eat that today, for today is a Sabbath to the LORD; today you will not find it in the field. Six days you shall gather it, but on the seventh day, the Sabbath, there will be none,” Exodus 16:25, 26.
However, Israel being Israel, some of the people went out on the Sabbath to gather manna, anyway, and found none. The LORD was angry at this refusal of Israel to obey His Word, but there was still no other judgment. A pot of manna was to be gathered and kept for future generations to see. Manna was supplied to the people for forty years, until Israel was in the Promised Land, Joshua 5:1-12.
To me, it seems that this provision for rest on the seventh day speaks of the sufficiency of the provision. There was to be no gathering because there was no need. The people were supplied. We’ll have much more to say about this as we go along.
- Sinai and the Sabbath.
Exodus 20 gives us the next mention of the Sabbath. It is here that the Sabbath was included in the Mosaic Covenant as part of the Constitution and by-laws, if you will, of the newly-formed nation of Israel. Israel wasn’t made a nation in 1948, but hundreds of years before Christ.
The fourth commandment – it isn’t the first one or the only one, as some seem to treat it – the fourth commandment served as a bridge between the the first three commandments about how Israel was to view and respond to their God, and the rest of the commandments, which deal with how they were to view and respond to their society, beginning with their own parents. The Sabbath Day brought what might have simply deteriorated into “belief” into focus as to how it was to affect everything else every other day of the week, not just that one day. There were to be no “Saturday Israelites.”
God said to “Remember” the Sabbath because the nation had already been given it, 40 years earlier.
We’ll conclude this portion of the study tomorrow, Lord willing.